Writing is a medium of communication that represents language through the inscription of signs and symbols. In most languages, writing is a complement to speech or spoken language. Within a language system, writing relies on many of the same structures as speech, such as vocabulary, grammar and semantics. Motivations for writing include publication, storytelling, correspondence and diary.

Writing most likely began as a consequence of political expansion in ancient cultures, which needed reliable means for transmitting information, maintaining financial accounts, keeping historical records, and similar activities. Around the 4th millennium BC, the complexity of trade and administration outgrew the power of memory, and writing became a more dependable method of recording and presenting transactions in a permanent form.The Dispilio Tablet, which was carbon dated to the 6th millennium BC, may be evidence that writing was used even earlier than that.  ….. From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Writing

Please refer to above link to understand the history of writing in different regions of the ancient world.

The many tools and writing materials used throughout history include stone, clay tablets, bamboo slats, wax tablets, vellum, parchment, paper, copperplate, styluses, quills, ink brushes, pencils, pens, and many styles of lithography. It is speculated that the Incas might have employed knotted cords known as quipu (or khipu) as a writing system.

The typewriter and various forms of word processors have subsequently become widespread writing tools. …. From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Writing

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